Used interchangeably with “project management”, “owner representation”, “program management”. Many industry professionals refer to construction management as being limited to oversight of the contractor(s) functions on site, during the construction phase only, with little or no management of the project architect or other consultants. In the pre-construction phase, the CM responsibility may be limited to observing and reporting, rather than managing. It also may be intended as excluding involvement in managing owner-furnished requirements and materials, such as furniture, fixtures, special equipment, IT systems, security, phone, audio-visual, etc. See Project Management for more broadly encompassing services.